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We Tested The Best Pre-Workouts For Beginners (2024)

The seemingly simple task of lifting weights and exercising to get in shape can become an almost intellectual pursuit if...

The seemingly simple task of lifting weights and exercising to get in shape can become an almost intellectual pursuit if you dive too deep, especially as a beginner.

One of the big dilemmas is what supplements to take, and when you eventually choose from the hundreds of options, you are confronted by hundreds of brands and products. One of the most densely populated segments is pre-workouts.

For most beginners, it's better to work yourself up from a gentler pre-workout to the more stimulating products, but others prefer to dive straight into the deep end.

This roundup review includes a bit of everything, from products with just enough punch to get you started to moderate stimulants to even one that will get your blood boiling.

Best Pre-Workout For Beginners

Crazy Nutrition Intensive Pre-Train

Crazy Nutrition Intensive Pre-Train For Beginners


  • All ingredients are properly dosed for optimal benefits.
  • Two delicious flavors.
  • A 60-day money-back guarantee.


  • Takes longer to arrive than if you buy something off Amazon.

Price Per Serving

  • $2.99 per serving single purchase
  • $2.10 per serving with subscription

===>Check Latest Crazy Nutrition Pre-Workout Deals<===

Beginner or not, a pre-workout must be adequately dosed to work as intended, and sadly, this is sorely missing in most options on the market. This is not the case with Crazy Nutrition's Intensive Pre-Train, though, which is why I’ve chosen it as the winner in this list.

This entry will be a bit more scientific than you may be used to, but I want to explain what the most important components do because they are the backbone of most pre-workouts.

We'll start with Citrulline Malate, found in 7 g in the Intensive Pre-Train.

The most effective dose of citrulline malate 2:1 is 6-8 g, with the higher end being better for acute performance enhancement and the lower for chronic supplementation [1][2].

For example, consuming 8 g of citrulline malate 60 minutes before exercise increased reps to failure, reduced muscle soreness for 24 to 48 hours, and increased maximal grip strength [1].

When 6 g is ingested over 7 days, the time to exhaustion increases during moderate-intensity cycling [2]. Furthermore, muscle tiredness was reduced following exercise compared to the placebo [3].

Next up is Beta Alanine, the substance responsible for the tingling sensation some people hate and others love because they associate it with a pre-workout "kicking in."

This is a harmless side effect when taking 800 mg or more, as it increases carnosine production [4].

This increased carnosine concentration enhances the muscle's ability to remove acidic waste products generated during energy regeneration, improving short-term, high-intensity endurance.

For example, a meta-analysis discovered that 179 g of beta-alanine enhanced endurance performance by 2.85%. [5]. However, it does not refer to a single dose size. It is the accumulation over time.

Endurance increases are most prominent in the 1-4-minute range, which can be achieved by high rep sets in the gym or long sprints on the track [6].

Keep in mind that this amount of beta-alanine was not taken all at once but over several weeks.

The recommended dose varies from 2.4 to 6.4 g, with the 2.5 g dose in this pre-workout falling on the low end of the spectrum.

So, if you train four times a week and take a pre-workout before each session, it's a good idea to find a pure beta-alanine supplement to use on off days to boost your chronic dose.

Betaine anhydrous is used in pre-workouts because it improves anabolic environment after exercise [7]. The suggested dose ranges from 1 to 6 g, with Crazy Nutrition Intensive Pre-Train being within this range at 1.8 g.

Caffeine and taurine are prominent ingredients in energy drinks that work well in pre-workouts. The most intriguing part is how they function together.

A taurine intake of 71-3105 mg reduces the need for high caffeine levels to achieve performance-enhancing effects [8].

The more taurine consumed, the better the performance, regardless of caffeine level. Typically, consuming 3 - 6 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body weight enhances strength by 6.5% and the number of reps accomplished when lifting by 9.4% [9].

If you weigh more than 65 kg, you may notice Crazy Nutrition is below the 3 mg threshold. However, adding taurine reduces the amount of caffeine necessary to the 40 - 325 mg range [8].

The product also contains ashwagandha, which, in higher doses, may enhance strength, power, and VO2 max. [10][11] Piperine, on the other hand, helps the better absorption of all ingredients.

Given how well the Intensive Pre-Train is formulated and the surprisingly good taste, the price is reasonable. A subscription plan will save you 30% and drive the price down from the $59.99 it costs as a single purchase.

There are cheaper pre-workouts on the market, but most only contain huge caffeine doses, with everything else underdosed. With Crazy Nutrition, you receive effective dosages of the critical ingredients.

===>Check Latest Crazy Nutrition Pre-Workout Deals<===

Best Budget Pre-Workout For Beginners

Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Pre-Workout

Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Pre Workout


  • 175 mg of caffeine per serving is enough for most people to benefit without it being too much.
  • Tastes amazing.
  • $1.00 per serving is dirt cheap.


  • Everything except caffeine is heavily underdosed.

Price Per Serving

  • $1.00 per serving

===>Check Latest Optimum Nutrition Pre-Workout Deals<===

Optimum Nutrition are best known for their Gold Standard whey protein, but the pre-workout with the same tag is another hugely popular and high-quality product they sell.

I have chosen to include it on the list mainly because it is a cost-effective energy drink in powdered form.

Everything but caffeine is severely underdosed, so don't expect the benefits of the best beginner pre-workout mentioned earlier in the post. The Gold Standard Pre-Workout, on the other hand, is an excellent choice if you need a pick-me-up, similar to an energy drink or coffee.

The 175 mg of caffeine is enough for most people to benefit in the gym, and the price of $1 makes it cheaper than a cup of coffee. The product contains L-citrulline and Beta-Alanine, but both are underdosed to the point they most likely do nothing in the mix.

There is also 3 g of creatine, which can be useful, but only if you supplement with creatine separately on your off days when you are not taking the pre-workout.

Overall, the ON pre-workout is nothing special, but with a low price, great taste, and a moderate amount of caffeine, it may be a perfect entry into pre-workouts for a beginner.

===>Check Latest Optimum Nutrition Pre-Workout Deals<===

Best Natural Pre-Workout For Beginners

Ora Organic Pre-Workout

Ora Organic Pre Workout


  • Organic, non-GMO, vegan and third-party tested.
  • Harnesses the power of herbs and plants to deliver energy, improve blood flow, and support endurance.
  • Great value for an all-natural product.


  • It's an acquired taste.
  • Effects are not as pronounced as in regular pre-workouts with more caffeine and amino acids L-citrulline and beta-alanine.

Price Per Serving

  • $1.84 per serving

===>Check Latest Ora Organic Pre-Workout Deals<===

While the other pre-workouts use mostly natural ingredients, they often contain artificial flavorings, sweeteners, and artificially derived amino acids.

If you are adamant about only putting pure organic stuff in your body, your choice for pre-workouts drastically shrinks, but Ora Organic is a product that shines in the segment.

The all-natural, organic, and vegan product uses only plants and herbs to deliver a mood and performance boost before you hit the gym without any of the drawbacks of normal pre-workouts, like jitters, energy crashes, and tingling sensations.

The 90 mg of caffeine comes from green coffee beans, yerba mate, and matcha green tea. It is not a big dose, but it is enough to wake you up, especially if you are not used to monstrous caffeine doses.

The supplement also delivers endurance and focus by harnessing the effects of natural ingredients like Ashwagandha, Rhodiola, Maca, and Ginseng.

As you know, nitric oxide is crucial for a potent pre-workout because it improves blood flow. A blend of beetroot and pomegranate is responsible for this effect here.

Ora Organic is very affordable for a product with the word organic written around 20 times in the ingredients list, and a 20-serving tub costs $36.99.

The downside of using only natural products here is the taste. You may learn to like it, but it is tolerable at best.

===>Check Latest Ora Organic Pre-Workout Deals<===

Best Low-Stim Pre-Workout For Beginners

Transparent Labs Stim Booster

Transparent Labs Stim Booster For Beginners


  • Low caffeine amount is ideal for beginners not used to big stimulant doses.
  • The cheapest pre-workout on the list, cheaper than a cup of coffee.
  • Tastes and mixes great.


  • Other ingredients besides caffeine are underdosed.

Price Per Serving

  • $0.33 per serving single purchase
  • $0.30 per serving with sub

===>Check Latest Transparent Labs Stim Booster Deals<===

Stimulants are a double-edged knife. A big dose will surely enhance performance, but it also comes at the cost of possible jitters, anxiety, and disrupted sleep.

As in all things in life, finding balance is crucial, and if you want to use some caffeine without overdosing, especially as a beginner who is not used to the high doses of the typical pre-workout, the Transparent Labs Stim Booster may be the right choice.

The other thing you will immediately notice is the price. A whole tub of the Stim Booster costs $9.99. No, I haven’t made a typo. This is $0.33 per serving, which is by far the cheapest product on the list.

The center point of the mix is 100 mg of caffeine aided by 500 mg of taurine. As I explained in the Crazy Nutrition section of the article, taurine reduces the need for high doses of caffeine. This simply means you get stronger positive effects from caffeine without the drawbacks.

The rest of the ingredients are less important. L-tyrosine is a potent nootropic, but it is underdosed, while NooLVL has a big study bias, and the effects are not certain.

Alpha GPC has been shown to improve vertical jump performance, but the study proving this hasn't been replicated, so I am not convinced of the effect.

As mentioned, the main ingredient here is caffeine. Even if you take two servings for 200 mg of caffeine, the price of $0.66 is still lower than the other options on the list and from a cup of takeaway coffee, so this is an excellent choice for a beginner looking for a low-caffeine pre-workout that is cost-effective.

It's also a great choice if you want a pre-workout without beta-alanine.

===>Check Latest Transparent Labs Stim Booster Deals<===

    Best Pump Pre-Workout For Beginners

    Transparent Labs Pump Pre-Workout

    Transparent Labs Pump Pre-Workout For Beginners


    • No stim means you can take this even in the evening.
    • The citrulline and glutathione combination may enhance the muscle-building response in the short term.
    • Informed Choice mark guarantees the purity of the product.
    • No beta-alanine means no unpleasant tingles.


    • Some ingredients like NO3-T and the low dose of ginseng likely have no effect.

    Price Per Serving

    • $1.66 per serving single purchase
    • $1.46 per serving with sub

    ===>Check Latest Transparent Labs Pump Pre-Workout Deals<===

    Transparent Labs Pump Pre-Workout is advertised as a nitric oxide enhancer, which makes it our top choice for pump pre-workout.

    It has comparable ingredients to Crazy Nutrition but without the stimulant caffeine, allowing you to take it at any time without disrupting your sleep.

    L-citrulline, at 8 g, is the most effective dose for improving endurance performance. It acts as a nitric oxide booster by converting to arginine in the kidneys, transforming into nitric oxide.

    I could not find any studies on the ingredient NO3-T; however, given that it is produced from L-arginine, it is most likely ineffective.

    L-arginine has trouble converting to nitric oxide because it gets broken down in the gut.

    This is why L-citrulline is such a popular pump ingredient: it avoids the gut and is broken down in the kidneys.

    We've discussed how betaine anhydrous can generate an anabolic environment while the L-tyrosine dose is insufficient for cognitive enhancement.

    Transparent Labs Pump Pre-Workout most likely contains L-glutathione due to its synergistic impact with L-citrulline.

    L-citrulline and L-glutathione supplementation for seven days increased blood flow following high-intensity exercise compared to a placebo [12].

    It remains to be seen whether this will boost long-term performance.

    Finally, an 8-week resistance training trial using L-citrulline and L-glutathione daily revealed the intervention group gained more lean mass than the placebo group after four weeks [13].

    However, after eight weeks, there was no significant difference between groups, indicating that it may not have long-term advantages.

    Ginseng is also likely underdosed, resulting in little benefit. This pre-workout's key performance-enhancing pump advantage is the synergy of L-citrulline, L-glutathione, and betaine anhydrous.

    It tastes great, just like all Transparent Labs supplements. It mixes without clumps, allowing you to shake it in any bottle. An important feature is the Informed Choice checkmark on all Transparent Labs goods.

    If you're a competitive drug-tested athlete or a first responder, you're taking a supplement that's been third-party tested for prohibited drugs.

    The price is comparable to other quality pre-workouts. It costs $49.99 per tub, and subscription saves you $5 and includes free shipping. One tub contains 30 servings, which will last you more than a month, depending on how frequently you exercise.

    ===>Check Latest Transparent Labs Pump Pre-Workout Deals<===

    Best High-Stim Pre-Workout For Beginners

    Shifted Maximum Pre-Workout

    Shifted Maximum Pre Workout


    • Has all the typical pre-workout ingredients plus a few additional ones for extra potential benefits.
    • Everything inside is adequately dosed.
    • High caffeine dose supported by L-theanine to take the edge off it.
    • The highest dose of all pre-workouts makes it the most powerful.


    • More expensive per serving than the rest.
    • L-theanine or not, 300 mg of caffeine will be too much for a lot of people.

    Price Per Serving

    • $2.74 per serving

    ===>Check Latest Shifted Maximum Pre-Workout Deals<===

    I usually don't recommend beginners to take pre-workouts with high caffeine dosages, but some people drink a lot of coffee anyway and are used to the effects.

    In the case of Shifted Maximum, caffeine is not the only thing in excess—this pre-workout has the largest dose of all pre-workouts- 30 grams of powder.

    The product has many ingredients in big doses. Caffeine is the most important, and 300 mg is certain to deliver noticeable effects.

    But be careful when you take it because the amount is enough to destroy your sleep and will cause jitters if you are not used to taking that much caffeine at once.

    The effect of caffeine is further boosted by taurine and L-theanine. The trio works synergistically and is one of the most potent nootropic, energy, and performance combinations.

    L-citrulline is included in the optimal dose of 8 grams, as are beta-alanine and Betaine Anhydrous, both in 2.5 g doses.

    The product also contains 5 grams of creatine monohydrate. I usually dislike the inclusion of creatine in pre-workouts because it doesn't have an acute effect, but at least here, the dose is sufficient. Just remember to take 5 grams of creatine separately on your off days when you don't take the pre-workout.

    Other interesting ingredients include Alpha GPC, which enhances cognitive function; Beetroot extract, which delivers extra nitric oxide; and Red Spinach Leaf Extract.

    Taking 1 g  of red spinach leaf for seven days and 1 hour before a 4 km bicycle time trial resulted in a faster time to complete power output and an average speed than placebo [14].

    The ingredients list doesn't end there. Shifted Maximum also contains Rhodiola Rosea and L-tyrosine, both of which are well-known additions to nootropics because of their brain-boosting effects.

    With a serving much higher than the competition's, Shifted Maximum is also naturally more expensive, at $54.99 for 20 servings.

    The price, high caffeine dose, and serving are usually not the first choice for beginners, but if you are serious about your results and can tolerate high caffeine doses, no other product is as effective as Shifted Maximum.

    ===>Check Latest Shifted Maximum Pre-Workout Deals<===

    Best Beginner Pre-Workout For Women

    Optimum Nutrition Amino Energy

    Amino Energy Pre Workout For Beginners


    • A lower caffeine dose is ideal for lighter women.
    • A wide range of flavors to choose from, and all are delicious.
    • Informed choice tick means every batch is tested for purity.


    • 100 mg of caffeine may not be enough for larger individuals to get performance-boosting effects.

    Price Per Serving

    • $0.66 per serving

    ===>Check Latest Amino Energy Pre-Workout Deals<===

    Beginner women receive a lot of attention from companies vying for their attention, but this can often lead to a choice overload.

    Many companies are pushing female versions of supplements identical to their main supplement line, with the only difference being the pink package.

    The Crazy Nutrition Intensive Pre-Train and ON Gold Standard pre-workouts are ideal for women new to training. However, Optimum Nutrition Amino Energy has a specific benefit for women.

    That is the lower caffeine dosage. Women require less caffeine than men because they are lighter in general. The fact the pre-workout contains taurine adds to the performance-enhancing advantages.

    Amino Energy contains a wide range of amino acids, including L-citrulline and Beta-Alanine, although the doses are too small to deliver noticeable effects.

    While the tub states you can take up to three doses, you only need one to get the performance advantages. One significant advantage is the variety of flavors. And you might be surprised to learn that almost all taste fantastic, even if they don't sound so attractive.

    It mixes easily, and the tubs are enormous, so the pre-workout lasts significantly longer than the other products mentioned above.

    ===>Check Latest Amino Energy Pre-Workout Deals<===

    Should Beginners Take Pre-Workout?

    Beginner lifters and recreational and competitive athletes should not prioritize pre-workout supplements. In fact, they should be well down on their priority lists.

    Consistency in training, optimizing nutrition, and recovery is immensely more important than supplements, and as a beginner, you must first learn to optimize these main pillars of fitness.

    Once they are in check, you can use pre-workouts for an extra boost of energy, power, and motivation. Of course, there is no rule about when you should start taking pre-workouts.

    For people working long hours or having intense personal or professional lives, a quick pick-me-up may be the difference between smashing a solid workout and skipping training altogether.

    The main goal of pre-workouts is precisely that—to give you a quick boost and make your workout more enjoyable and productive.

    How To Pick The Best Pre-Workout For Beginners

    Pre Workout For Beginners


    Naturally, the ingredients matter most in a pre-workout for beginners, intermediate, and advanced athletes alike. Pre-workouts contain several categories of ingredients, with the key one being caffeine.

    Caffeine is a nervous system stimulant that increases energy levels, focus, and fat oxidation while reducing the rate of perceived exertion during exercise. Moderate doses of caffeine, 2-4 mg per kg of body weight, significantly improve physical and mental performance.

    Combinations with L-theanine and taurine increase caffeine's potency and reduce the amount required to achieve the same outcomes as a higher dose. 

    L-citrulline is another important element in most pre-workout supplements. It is arguably the most effective vasodilator on the market, widening blood vessels and improving blood flow.

    Beta-alanine is the next most common component. In addition to producing the characteristic tingling effects, it has key effects such as increased power production and decreased weariness.

    Betaine has received less extensive research than the preceding two components, yet it is thought to offer significant performance and muscle-building effects.

    As you can see in some of the products, pre-workouts can contain additional ingredients. Creatine is commonly used, and popular brain boosters include L-tyrosine and Beetroot Extract.

    However, caffeine, L-citrulline, beta-alanine, and betaine anhydrous are the most important ones.


    As much as the ingredients are important, their inclusion in formulations is often pointless because of low dosages. Here are the recommended dosages you should be looking for in a good-quality pre-workout:

    • L-citrulline: 6-8 g
    • Beta-Alanine: 2-3 grams
    • Betaine anhydrous: 2.5 g
    • Caffeine: 100-300 mg
    • L-theanine: 100-400 mg
    • Taurine: 500-2000 mg

    Taste And Texture

    While everyone has a different taste, there are products that everyone agrees taste great and others that can make you grimace simply from the smell. Most products are nice on the tongue, but some have strong chemical tastes or are too "natural," as in Ora Organic.

    Taste and mixability with water are much less important than the ingredients and their doses, but they can still influence a customer's product choice.

    Third-Party Testing

    Unfortunately, way too many supplements on the market are tainted with heavy metals or other contaminants, which can have detrimental effects on your health.

    The situation can be even worse for athletes or individuals who are subjected to random drug tests because they can fail the test because of a tainted supplement.

    This is why looking for independent third-party testing for purity is important. All of the products on this list come from reputable brands with proven track records, and most of them have legitimate third-party testing, such as the Informed Choice mark carried by Transparent Labs and most Optimum Nutrition supplements.

    Frequently Asked Beginner Pre-Workout Questions

    Is Pre-Workout Good For Beginners?

    Beginners in the gym or sports can take a pre-workout to boost their efforts. However, having a consistent and solid training plan, proper nutrition, and adequate recovery are significantly more important. A pre-workout works mostly to quickly raise your energy levels and mood and provide a better pump.

    As a beginner, it's better to start with a product with low to moderate caffeine content to avoid overstimulation.

    Is Pre-Workout Worth It?

    A pre-workout can serve as a quick pick-me-up after a long working day or as a fresh start to the day if you train in the morning. Good quality pre-workouts with high doses of the right ingredients can also lead to performance and endurance benefits, so I would say they are worth it.

    When Should You Take Pre-Workout?

    Pre-workouts can be taken anywhere from 30 to 60 minutes before training. They typically start working 60-120 minutes after ingestion and last about 6 hours, so deciding exactly when to take them is a matter of personal preference.


    I believe the Crazy Nutrition Intensive Pre-Train strikes the right balance between a moderate dose of caffeine, well-dosed performance enhancers, and a price for a beginner to feel all the benefits of pre-workouts without being overwhelmed.

    If you are looking for a budget solution, Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard pre-workout is a cheap and easy pick-me-up you can use before hitting the gym.

    Two Transparent Labs pre-workouts represent low-stim products in the list. If you are adventurous and want to take the opposite approach, Shifted Maximum is the strongest pre-workout here.

    ===>Check Latest Crazy Nutrition Pre-Workout Deals<===


    1. Gonzalez, A. M., & Trexler, E. T. (2020). Effects of citrulline supplementation on exercise performance in humans: A review of the current literature. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 34(5), 1480-1495.
    1. Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., Lord, T., Vanhatalo, A., Winyard, P. G., & Jones, A. M. (2015). l-Citrulline supplementation improves O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology.
    1. Suzuki, T., Morita, M., Kobayashi, Y., & Kamimura, A. (2016). Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13(1), 1-8.
    1. Trexler, E.T., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Stout, J.R. et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12, 30 (2015).
    1. Hobson, R. M., Saunders, B., Ball, G., Harris, R. C., & Sale, C. (2012). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino acids, 43(1), 25-37.
    1. Saunders, B., Elliott-Sale, K., Artioli, G. G., Swinton, P. A., Dolan, E., Roschel, H., ... & Gualano, B. (2017). β-alanine supplementation to improve exercise capacity and performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(8), 658-669.
    1. Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., ... & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise. European journal of applied physiology113(3), 793-802.
    1. Souza, D. B., Del Coso, J., Casonatto, J., & Polito, M. D. (2017). Acute effects of caffeine-containing energy drinks on physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of nutrition56(1), 13-27.
    1. Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W. Efficacy of Acute Caffeine Ingestion for Short-term High-Intensity Exercise Performance: A Systematic Review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 24(1):p 257-265, January 2010. | DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c1f88a
    1. Bonilla, D.A.; Moreno, Y.; Gho, C.; Petro, J.L.; Odriozola-Martínez, A.; Kreider, R.B. Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Physical Performance: Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis.  Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol.2021, 6, 20.
    1. Pérez-Gómez, J.; Villafaina, S.; Adsuar, J.C.; Merellano-Navarro, E.; Collado-Mateo, D. Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on VO2max: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients2020, 12, 1119.
    1. Cabre, H. E., Greenwalt, C. E., Gould, L. M., & Smith-Ryan, A. E. (2023). The effects of L-Citrulline and Glutathione on Endurance performance in young adult trained males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 20(1), 2206386.
    1. Hwang, P., Morales Marroquín, F. E., Gann, J., Andre, T., McKinley-Barnard, S., Kim, C., … & Willoughby, D. S. (2018). Eight weeks of resistance training in conjunction with glutathione and L-Citrulline supplementation increases lean mass and has no adverse effects on blood clinical safety markers in resistance-trained males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1), 30.
    1. Gonzalez, A. M., Accetta, M. R., Spitz, R. W., Mangine, G. T., Ghigiarelli, J. J., & Sell, K. M. (2021). Red spinach extract supplementation improves cycle time trial performance in recreationally active men and women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 35(9), 2541-2545.

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